Poverty is the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the one who lacks basic human needs, which commonly includes clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. About 1.7 billion people are estimated to live in absolute poverty today. Relative poverty refers to lacking a usual or socially acceptable level of resources or income as compared with others within a society or country.
PovertyEconomicsHumanitarian aidDevelopmentAidDevelopment economicsPovertyEconomic development
Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and psychological human development generally occurring between puberty and legal adulthood. The period of adolescence is most closely associated with the teenage years, although its physical, psychological and cultural expressions can begin earlier and end later.
Biologically, a child is generally a human between the stages of birth and puberty. Some vernacular definitions of a child include the fetus, as being an unborn child. The legal definition of "child" generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority.
The Israelites were a Hebrew-speaking people of the Ancient Near East, who inhabited the Land of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods (15th to 6th centuries BCE), later evolving into Jews and Samaritans of the classic period, inhabiting Judea and Samaria respectively. In Modern Hebrew usage, an Israelite is, broadly speaking, a lay member of the Jewish ethnoreligious community, as opposed to the priestly orders of Kohanim and Levites.
IsraelitesTribes of IsraelEthnonymsJewish historyAncient peoplesJewsSemitic peoples
A park is a protected area, in its natural or semi-natural state, or planted, and set aside for human recreation and enjoyment, or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. It may consist of rocks, soil, water, flora and fauna and grass areas. Many parks are legally protected by law. Wilderness parks are intact and undeveloped areas used mainly by wild species. Protected wilderness zones are required for some wild species to survive.
Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. The diagnostic criteria require that symptoms become apparent before a child is three years old. Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize; how this occurs is not well understood.
AutismPsychiatric diagnosisNeurological disorders in childrenLearning disabilitiesCommunication disordersMental and behavioural disordersAutismNeurological disordersPervasive developmental disorders
Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional mistreatment or neglect of a child or children. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department for Children And Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child.
Child abuseCrimesChild abuseArticles with inconsistent citation formatsFamily therapy
Pediatrics (also known as paediatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician, or paediatrician. The word pediatrics and its cognates mean healer of children; they derive from two Greek words: παῖς (pais = child) and ἰατρός (iatros = doctor or healer).
PediatricsChildhoodMedical specialtiesPediatricsMedical doctors by specialty
Arthritis is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints. There are over 100 different forms of arthritis. The most common form, osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease), is a result of trauma to the joint, infection of the joint, or age. Other arthritis forms are rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and related autoimmune diseases. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. The major complaint by individuals who have arthritis is joint pain.
ArthritisRheumatologyArthritisGreek loanwordsSkeletal disordersInflammationsAging-associated diseases
Human trafficking is the illegal trade of human beings for the purposes of reproductive slavery, commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, or a modern-day form of slavery.
Human traffickingArticles with inconsistent citation formatsOrganized crime activityCrimes against humanitySlaveryChild labourHuman traffickingHuman rights abusesDebt bondageGlobalizationSex crimes
Child sexual abuse
Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. Forms of child sexual abuse include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure (of the genitals, female nipples, etc. ) with intent to gratify their own sexual desires or to intimidate or groom the child, physical sexual contact with a child, or using a child to produce child pornography.
Child sexual abuseHuman sexualityChild sexual abuse in religious groupsChild sexual abuseChild abuseSex crimesSexual abuse
A confidence trick is an attempt to defraud a person or group by gaining their confidence. A confidence artist is an individual operating alone or in concert with others who exploits characteristics of the human psyche such as dishonesty and honesty, vanity, compassion, credulity, irresponsibility, naivety and greed.
Confidence trickDeceptionFraudConfidence tricks
"Nude" and "Naked" redirect here. For other uses, see Nude (disambiguation) and Naked (disambiguation). "Nudes" also redirects here. For the 2001 folk rock album, see Nudes (album). "Clothes free" redirects here. For the preference for nudity in non-sexualized social settings, see naturism. Nudity or nakedness is the state of wearing no clothing. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic.
English as a foreign or second language
English as a second language (ESL), English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) and English as a foreign language (EFL) all refer to the use or study of English by speakers with different native languages. The precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English, but they may also be used in relation to demographic information.
English as a foreign or second languageEducation by subjectEnglish-language educationEnglish as a foreign or second language
Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting for another and, in so doing, permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities from the original parent or parents. Unlike guardianship or other systems designed for the care of the young, adoption is intended to effect a permanent change in status and as such requires societal recognition, either through legal or religious sanction.
AdoptionFamily lawAdoptionAdoption, fostering, orphan care and displacement
As a medical diagnosis, pedophilia, or paedophilia, is defined as a psychiatric disorder in adults or late adolescents (persons age 16 or older) typically characterized by a primary or exclusive sexual interest in prepubescent children (generally age 13 years or younger, though onset of puberty may vary). The prepubescent child must be at least five years younger than the adolescent before the attraction can be diagnosed as pedophilia.
Malnutrition is the condition that results from taking an unbalanced diet in which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess (too high an intake), or in the wrong proportions. A number of different nutrition disorders may arise, depending on which nutrients are under or overabundant in the diet. In most of the world, malnutrition is present in the form of undernutrition, which is caused by a diet lacking adequate calories and protein.
MalnutritionPublic healthHumanitarian aidNutritionPovertyMalnutrition
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the very young offspring of a human or other mammal. When applied to humans, the term is usually considered synonymous with baby, but the latter is commonly applied to the young of any animal. When a human child learns to walk, the term toddler may be used instead.
Reproduction (or procreation) is the biological process by which new "offspring" individual organisms are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. The known methods of reproduction are broadly grouped into two main types: sexual and asexual. In asexual reproduction, an individual can reproduce without involvement with another individual of that species.
Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is the forcing of undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another. When that force is immediate, of short duration, or infrequent, it is called sexual assault. The offender is referred to as a sexual abuser or molester. The term also covers any behavior by any adult towards a child to stimulate either the adult or child sexually. When the victim is younger than the age of consent, it is referred to as child sexual abuse.
Sexual abuseSexual abuse
Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have largely fallen into disuse in Canada and are commonly considered pejorative. Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are some of the earliest sites of human habitation in Canada that archaeologists have found. The Paleo-Indian Clovis, Plano and Pre-Dorset cultures pre-date current Indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Aboriginal peoples in CanadaHunter-gatherers of CanadaHistory of CanadaHistory of indigenous peoples of North AmericaArticle Feedback BlacklistIndigenous peoples of North AmericaAboriginal peoples in CanadaEthnic groups in Canada
Minister of State
Minister of State is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system. In some countries a "Minister of State" is a junior minister, who is assigned to assist a specific cabinet minister. In other countries a "Minister of State" is a holder of a more senior position, such as a cabinet minister or even a head of government.
Minister of StateGovernment ministersExecutive ministersLists of government ministers
Satanism is a group of religions composed of a diverse number of ideological and philosophical beliefs and social phenomena. Their shared features include symbolic association with, admiration for the character of, and even veneration of Satan or similar rebellious, promethean, and liberating figures. Satan, also called Lucifer by many Christians, appears in the Books of Chronicles provoking David to take a census of Israel.
A twin is one of two offspring produced in the same pregnancy. Twins can either be monozygotic ("identical"), meaning that they develop from one zygote that splits and forms two embryos, or dizygotic ("fraternal") because they develop from two separate eggs that are fertilized by two separate sperm. In contrast, a fetus which develops alone in the womb is called a singleton, and the general term for one offspring of a multiple birth is multiple.
Child pornography refers to images or films (also known as child abuse images) and, in some cases, writings depicting sexually explicit activities involving a child. Abuse of the child occurs during the sexual acts which are recorded in the production of child pornography, and several professors of psychology state that memories of the abuse are maintained as long as visual records exist, are accessed, and are "exploited perversely.
Child pornographyCrimesAbuseChild pornographySex crimes
For orphaned articles in Wikipedia, see For other uses, see Title=Orphan;ns=0/Main/;language:wiki=en,locale=en (disambiguation). An orphan is a child permanently bereaved of or abandoned by his or her parents. In common usage, only a child (or the young of an animal) who has lost both parents is called an orphan. However, adults can also be referred to as orphans, or "adult orphans".
OrphanHuman developmentChildren and deathGreek loanwordsAdoption, fostering, orphan care and displacementChild welfareFamilyAftermath of war
Brazilians are all people born in Brazil. A Brazilian can be also a person born abroad to a Brazilian parent or a foreigner living in Brazil who applied for Brazilian citizenship.
Brazilian peopleBrazilian peopleEthnic groups in Brazil
The autism spectrum or autistic spectrum describes a range of conditions classified as pervasive developmental disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Pervasive developmental disorders include autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), childhood disintegrative disorder, and Rett syndrome, although usually only the first three conditions are considered part of the autism spectrum.
Autism spectrumPsychiatric diagnosisLearning disabilitiesDevelopmental neuroscienceDevelopmental psychologyAutism
The Lebanese people are a nation and ethnic group of Levantine people originating in what is today the country of Lebanon, including those who had inhabited Mount Lebanon prior to the creation of the modern Lebanese state. The cultural and linguistic heritage of the Lebanese people is a rich blend of both indigenous elements and the foreign cultures that have come to rule the land and its people over the course of thousands of years.
Lebanese peopleLebanese peopleFertile Crescent
In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment. The earliest known use of the term dates from 1631, in an account by the mayor of Abingdon reporting that "wee haue erected wthn our borough a workehouse to sett poore people to worke".
WorkhousePoverty in the United KingdomPoor LawEnglish lawsBritish lawsLaw in the United Kingdom
Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a person to contribute to conception. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term. There are many biological causes of infertility, some which may be bypassed with medical intervention. Women who are fertile experience a natural period of fertility before and during ovulation, and they are naturally infertile during the rest of the menstrual cycle.
Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more human beings as part of a religious ritual (ritual killing). Its typology closely parallels the various practices of ritual slaughter of animals and of religious sacrifice in general. Human sacrifice has been practised in various cultures throughout history.
Human sacrificeHomicideCrimes involving Satanism or the occultHuman sacrificeSuperstitionsReligious behaviour and experienceViolenceMythemes
Fertility is the natural capability of producing offsprings. As a measure, "fertility rate" is the number of children born per couple, person or population. Fertility differs from fecundity, which is defined as the potential for reproduction (influenced by gamete production, fertilisation and carrying a pregnancy to term). A lack of fecundity would be called sterility.
Foster care is the term used for a system in which a minor who has been made a ward is placed in the private home of a state certified caregiver referred to as a "foster parent". The state via the family court and child protection agency stand in loco parentis to the minor, making all legal decisions while the foster parent is responsible for the day-to-day care of said minor. The foster parent is remunerated by the state for their services.
Foster careAdoption forms and related practicesFamilyFoster careAdoption, fostering, orphan care and displacement
Married... with Children
Married... with Children is an American sitcom that aired for 11 seasons that featured a dysfunctional family living in a fictional Chicago, Illinois suburb. The show, notable for being the first prime time television series to air on Fox, ran from April 5, 1987, to June 9, 1997. The series was created by Michael G. Moye and Ron Leavitt.
Married... with Children1997 American television series endingsFox network shows1987 American television series debutsTelevision series by Sony Pictures TelevisionTelevision series about dysfunctional families1980s American comedy television seriesAmerican television sitcoms1990s American comedy television seriesTelevision shows set in Chicago, IllinoisEnglish-language television series
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of systematic psychological changes, emotional changes, and perception changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life span. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire life span.
Developmental psychologyDevelopmental psychologyBranches of psychologyBehavioural sciences
In the field of public health, infant mortality is a commonly used statistical measure that is defined as the ratio of infant deaths to live births. Traditionally, the most common cause worldwide was dehydration from diarrhea, however a variety of programs combating this problem have decreased the rate of children dying from dehydration. As a result, the most common cause is now pneumonia.
Infant mortalityPublic healthChildren and deathPopulationInfancyDemography
In law, a minor is a person under a certain age — the age of majority — which legally demarcates childhood from adulthood; the age depends upon jurisdiction and application, but is typically 18. "Minor" may also be used in contexts not connected to the overall age of majority; for example, the drinking age in the United States is 21, and people below this age are sometimes referred to as "minors" even if 18.
Minor (law)ChildhoodJuvenile lawAgeism
The City of Baguio is a highly urbanized city located in northern Luzon island in the Philippines. The city has become the center of business and commerce as well as the center of education in the entire Northern Luzon thereby becoming the seat of government of the Cordillera Administrative Region(C.A.R.). According to the 2007 census, Baguio City has a population of 301,926. Baguio City was established by Americans in 1900 at the site of an Ibaloi village known as Kafagway.
BaguioCities in the PhilippinesBaguio
Developmental disability is a term used in the United States and Canada to describe lifelong disabilities attributable to mental or physical impairments, manifested prior to age 18. It is not synonymous with "developmental delay" which is often a consequence of a temporary illness or trauma during childhood.
Developmental disabilityDisabilityPsychiatric diagnosisDevelopmental disabilitiesSpecial educationDevelopmental psychiatry
A nursery school is a school for children between the ages of one and five years, staffed by suitably qualified and other professionals who encourage and supervise educational play rather than simply providing childcare. It is a pre-school education institution, part of early childhood education. Nursery in England is also called FS1 which is the first year of foundation before they go into primary or infants.
Nursery schoolEducational stagesSchool terminologyEducational yearsChild careSchool typesEarly childhood education
An arranged marriage has its deep roots in royal and aristocratic families around the world. Today, arranged marriage is largely practiced in South Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia and East Asia to some extent. Other groups that practice this custom include the Unification Church and Hasidic Judaism. It should not be confused with the practice of forced marriage.
Arranged marriageArranged marriage
Aggression, in its broadest sense, is behavior, or a disposition, that is forceful, hostile or attacking. It may occur either in retaliation or without provocation. In narrower definitions that are used in social sciences and behavioral sciences, aggression is an intention to cause harm or an act intended to increase relative social dominance. Predatory or defensive behavior between members of different species may not be considered aggression in the same sense.
AggressionAggressionDispute resolutionProblem behavior
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British poet, historian and Whig politician. He wrote extensively as an essayist and reviewer, and on British history. He also held political office as Secretary at War between 1839 and 1841 and Paymaster-General between 1846 and 1848.
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron MacaulayBritish AnglicansMembers of the United Kingdom Parliament for Scottish constituenciesBritish historiansAdministrators in British IndiaBurials at Westminster AbbeyHistorians of EnglandAnglo-ScotsMembers of the Privy Council of the United KingdomBritish abolitionistsUK MPs 1841–18471859 deathsRecipients of the Pour le Mérite (civil class)1800 birthsNational Portrait Gallery, LondonUK MPs 1831–1832Alumni of Trinity College, CambridgeUK MPs 1852–1857UK MPs 1830–1831British poetsWhig (British political party) MPsRectors of the University of GlasgowMembers of the United Kingdom Parliament for English constituenciesMacaulay family of LewisUK MPs 1832–1835UK MPs 1837–1841Corresponding Members of the St Petersburg Academy of SciencesBarons in the Peerage of the United KingdomFellows of the Royal Society
Asclepius is the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek religion. Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts; his daughters are Hygieia ("Hygiene", the goddess/personification of health, cleanliness, and sanitation), Iaso (the goddess of recuperation from illness), Aceso (the goddess of the healing process), Aglæa/Ægle (the goddess of beauty, splendor, glory, magnificence, and adornment), and Panacea (the goddess of universal remedy).
AsclepiusOffspring of ApolloGreek godsGreek mythological hero cultGreek mythologyAsclepiusHistory of medicine
Tree (data structure)
In computer science, a tree is a widely used data structure that simulates a hierarchical tree structure with a set of linked nodes. Mathematically, it is an ordered directed tree, more specifically an arborescence: an acyclic connected graph where each node has zero or more children nodes and at most one parent node. Furthermore, the children of each node have a specific order.
Tree (data structure)Trees (data structures)Knowledge representation
Child care (or "childcare", "child minding", "babycare", or "daycare" "preschool") means caring for and supervising child/children usually from 0–13 years of age. Child care is a broad topic covering a wide spectrum of contexts, activities, social and cultural conventions, and institutions. The majority of child care institutions that are available require that child care providers have extensive training in first aid and are CPR certified.
Child careChild careHome economics
List of youth organizations
Contents: Top 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Main article: Youth The following is a List of youth organizations. Most organizations are international unless noted otherwise.
List of youth organizationsLists of organizationsYouth organizations by countryYouth model governmentsJewish youth organizationsYouth empowerment organizations
Moab is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in Jordan. The land lies alongside much of the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. The existence of the Kingdom of Moab is attested to by numerous archeological findings, most notably the Mesha Stele, which describes the Moabite victory over an unnamed son of King Omri of Israel. The Moabite capital was Dibon. In Biblical times, the nation was often in conflict with its Israelite neighbours to the west.
MoabHebrew Bible nationsTorah placesAncient peoplesMoabHistory of JordanSemitic peoplesSouthern Levant
Superhuman can mean an improved human, for example, by genetic modification, cybernetic implants, or as what humans might evolve into, in the near or distant future. Occasionally, it could mean an otherwise "normal" human with unusual abilities, such as psychic abilities, flying abilities, unimaginable strength or exceptional proficiency at something, far beyond the normal. Superhuman can also mean something that is not human, but considered to be "superior" to humans in some ways.
SuperhumanScience fiction themesHumans
Blood libel (also blood accusation) is a false accusation or claim that religious minorities, usually Jews, murder children to use their blood in certain aspects of their religious rituals and holidays. Historically, these claims—alongside those of well poisoning and host desecration—have been a major theme in European persecution of Jews.
Blood libelReligion and violenceAntisemitic attacks and incidentsAntisemitic canardsJewish historyChristianity and JudaismBlood libel
Military use of children
The military use of children takes three distinct forms: children can take direct part in hostilities (child soldiers), or they can be used in support roles such as porters, spies, messengers, look outs, and sexual slaves; or they can be used for political advantage either as human shields or in propaganda. Throughout history and in many cultures, children have been extensively involved in military campaigns even when such practices were supposedly against cultural morals.
Military use of childrenAge and societyYouth rightsChild soldiersChild labourChildren in warHuman rights abusesViolence against childrenMilitary sociologyAgeismAftermath of war
Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence. In developmental psychology, childhood is divided up into the developmental stages of toddlerhood (learning to walk), early childhood (play age), middle childhood (school age), and adolescence (puberty through post-puberty).
A single parent usually refers to a parent who has most of the day to day responsibilities in the raising of the child or children, which would categorize them as the dominant caregiver who is not living with a spouse or partner, or those who are not married. The dominant caregiver is the parent in which the children have residency with the majority of the time; if the parents are separated or divorced children live with their custodial parent and have visitation with their noncustodial parent.
Single parentLiving arrangementsParenting
Secretary of State for Education
The Secretary of State for Education (frequently shortened to the Education Secretary) is the chief minister of the Department for Education in the United Kingdom government. The position was re-established on 12 May 2010, held by Michael Gove. A Committee of the Privy Council was appointed in 1839 to supervise the distribution of certain Government grants in the education field.
Secretary of State for EducationEducation in the United KingdomLists of government ministers of the United KingdomDepartment for EducationCurrent ministerial offices in the United Kingdom
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words to communicate. The capacity to successfully use language requires one to acquire a range of tools including syntax, phonetics, and an extensive vocabulary. This language might be vocalized as with speech or manual as in sign. The human language capacity is represented in the brain.
Language acquisitionLanguage acquisitionLinguisticsApplied linguistics
Our Lady of Fátima
Our Lady of Fátima
Child development refers to the biological and psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development.
Child developmentChildhoodChild developmentDevelopmental psychology
Thalidomide is a sedative drug introduced in the late 1950s that was used to treat morning sickness. It was sold from 1957 until 1961, when it was withdrawn after being found to be a cause of birth defects. Modern uses of thalidomide (trademarked as Thalomid, according to FDA Orange Book) include treating multiple myeloma in combination with dexamethasone, and erythema nodosum leprosum, with strict controls on its use to prevent birth defects.
ThalidomideTeratogensPhthalimidesWithdrawn drugsGerman inventionsImmunosuppressantsCarcinogensLeprosyGlutarimidesHealth disasters
Parenting (or child rearing) is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. Parenting refers to the aspects of raising a child aside from the biological relationship. Parenting is usually done by the biological parents of the child in question, although governments and society take a role as well. In many cases, orphaned or abandoned children receive parental care from non-parent blood relations.
Consanguinity ("blood relation", from the Latin consanguinitas) refers to the property of being from the same kinship as another person. In that respect, consanguinity is the quality of being descended from the same ancestor as another person.
ConsanguinityGeneticsMarriageKinship and descentGenealogy
Total fertility rate
]] The total fertility rate (TFR, sometimes also called the fertility rate, period total fertility rate or total period fertility rate of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she were to experience the exact current age-specific fertility rates through her lifetime, and she were to survive from birth through the end of her reproductive life. It is obtained by summing the single-year age-specific rates at a given time.
Total fertility rateFertilityPopulationDemography
The Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from Spain through revolution. The society was initiated by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night of July 7, when Filipino writer José Rizal was to be banished to Dapitan.
KatipunanPhilippine–American WarSecret societiesDefunct organizations of the PhilippinesPhilippine RevolutionWomen in war in the Philippines
In family law and public policy, child support (or child maintenance) is an ongoing, periodic payment made by a parent for the financial benefit of a child following the end of a marriage or other relationship. Child maintenance is paid directly or indirectly by an obligor to an obligee for the care and support of children of a relationship that has been terminated, or in some cases never existed. Often the obligor is a non-custodial parent.
Child supportChildhoodDivorceFamily lawMarriageChild supportParenting
In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Dwarves are a race inhabiting the world of Arda, a fictional prehistoric Earth which includes the continent Middle-earth. They appear in his books The Hobbit (1937), The Lord of the Rings (1954–55), and the posthumously published The Silmarillion (1977), Unfinished Tales (1980), and The History of Middle-earth series (1983–96), the last three edited by his son and literary executor Christopher Tolkien.
Dwarf (Middle-earth)Middle-earth racesMiddle-earth Dwarves
The Lao is an ethnic subgroup of Tai/Dai in Southeast Asia.
Lao peopleBuddhist communitiesTai peoples
For other uses of the term see Traveler (disambiguation). Irish Travellers (Irish: an lucht siúil) or Pavee are a traditionally nomadic people of ethnic Irish origin, who maintain a separate language and set of traditions. They live predominantly in the Republic of Ireland as well as having large numbers in the United Kingdom and in the United States.
Irish TravellersUnited Kingdom Census 2001Ethnic groups in IrelandEthnic groups in the United StatesSocial groupsCeltic cultureEurasian nomadsIrish diasporaEthnic groups in EuropeIrish TravellersEthnic groups in the United Kingdom
Child protection is used to describe a set of usually government-run services designed to protect children and young people who are underage and to encourage family stability. These typically include foster care, adoption services, services aimed at supporting at-risk families so they can remain intact, and investigation of alleged child abuse.
Child protectionSocial programsChild welfare
The Stolen Generations (also known as Stolen children) were the children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments. The removals occurred in the period between approximately 1869 and 1969, although in some places children were still being taken until the 1970s.
Stolen GenerationsPolitical controversies in AustraliaPolitical history of AustraliaRacism in AustraliaAustralian political termsMultiracial affairsStolen GenerationsCultural assimilationAdoption, fostering, orphan care and displacementHistory of Indigenous AustraliansKidnapped Australian childrenHuman rights abusesAustralian childrenAdoption historyGenocide
Massacre of the Innocents
The Massacre of the Innocents was an episode of infanticide by Herod the Great, the king of Iudaea Province. According to the Gospel of Matthew Herod ordered the execution of all young male children in the village of Bethlehem, so as to avoid the loss of his throne to a newborn King of the Jews whose birth had been announced to him by the Magi.
Massacre of the InnocentsChristian festivals and holy daysGospel episodesNew Testament words and phrasesHerod the GreatPeople celebrated in the Lutheran liturgical calendarSaints daysChristian martyrsAnglican saintsDecember observancesChild saintsMurdered childrenChristian iconographyGospel of Matthew
Intellectual giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average. It is different from a skill, in that skills are learned or acquired behaviors. Like a talent, intellectual giftedness is usually believed to be an innate, personal aptitude for intellectual activities that cannot be acquired through personal effort. Various ideas about the definition, development, and best ways of identifying intellectual giftedness have been put forward.
Intellectual giftednessGiftednessEducational psychology
A biblical covenant is an agreement found in The Holy Bible. It is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith. It is used in the Tanakh 264 times (see appended list). All Abrahamic religions consider the Biblical covenant important. The equivalent word in the Septuagint and the Greek New Testament is διαθήκη, diatheke.
Covenant (biblical)Jewish theologyHebrew Bible topicsChristian termsChristian lawChristian philosophyBiblical phrasesJudeo-Christian topicsChristian theology of the Bible
Boat people is a term that usually refers to refugees, illegal immigrants, or asylum seekers who emigrate in numbers in boats that are sometimes old and crudely made. The term came into common use during the late 1970s with the mass departure of Vietnamese refugees from Communist-controlled Vietnam, following the Vietnam War.
Boat peopleVietnamese refugeesHistory of VietnamVietnamese migrationIllegal immigrationHaitian diasporaVietnamese diasporaVietnam WarHuman migrationHistory of Haiti
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park
The Moors murders were carried out by Ian Brady and Myra Hindley between July 1963 and October 1965, in and around what is now Greater Manchester, England. The victims were five children aged between 10 and 17—Pauline Reade, John Kilbride, Keith Bennett, Lesley Ann Downey and Edward Evans—at least four of whom were sexually assaulted.
Moors murders1963 in the United KingdomMurdered English childrenMurdersPeople murdered in EnglandMurder in EnglandHistory of Greater Manchester1966 in England
Gifted education (also known as Gifted and Talented Education, Talented and Gifted, or G/T) is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. There is no standard global definition of what a gifted student is. In 2011, the National Association of Gifted Children published a position paper that defined what a gifted student is.
Gifted educationAlternative educationGifted educationSchool terminology
A toddler is a term used to describe a child that is typically defined as being between the ages of one and four.
Department for Children, Schools and Families
The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) was a department of the UK government, between 2007 and 2010, responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including child protection and education. The DCSF was replaced by the Department for Education after the change of government following the General Election 2010.
Department for Children, Schools and FamiliesGovernment agencies disestablished in 2010Defunct departments of the United Kingdom GovernmentGovernment agencies established in 2007Educational institutions disestablished in 2010Department for Children, Schools and FamiliesEducational institutions established in 20072007 establishments in the United Kingdom
Pederasty or paederasty is a (usually erotic) relationship between an older man and an adolescent boy outside his immediate family. The word pederasty derives from Greek (paiderastia) "love of boys", a compound derived from παῖς (pais) "child, boy" and ἐραστής (erastēs) "lover". Historically, pederasty has existed as a variety of customs and practices within different cultures.
PederastyPedophiliaAdolescenceSexual orientation and societyGreek loanwordsPederastySexuality and societyMale homosexuality
Mark Allan Hoppus (born March 15, 1972) is an American musician, record producer, and television host. He is the bassist and one of the two lead vocalists for the pop punk band Blink-182, as well as the bassist and lead vocalist for the alternative rock band +44. He is a co-founder of both bands. As of late, Hoppus has produced albums for groups such as Idiot Pilot, New Found Glory, The Matches, and Motion City Soundtrack.
Mark HoppusBlink-182 membersAmerican rock singersLiving peopleMusicians from CaliforniaAmerican expatriates in the United KingdomPop punk singersAmerican male singersPeople from Kern County, CaliforniaAmerican punk rock bass guitaristsAmerican bass guitaristsAmerican punk rock singers1972 births
Nisei is a Japanese language term used in countries in North America, South America and Australia to specify the children born to Japanese people in the new country. The Nisei are considered the second generation; and the grandchildren of the Japanese-born immigrants are called Sansei. The Sansei are considered the third generation. (In Japanese counting, "one, two, three" is "ichi, ni, san" – see Japanese numerals).
NiseiJapanese diasporaJapanese-American historyEthnic groups in the United StatesCultural generationsJapanese words and phrases
Beslan school hostage crisis
The Beslan school hostage crisis (also referred to as the Beslan school siege or Beslan massacre) of early September 2004 lasted three days and involved the capture of over 1,100 people as hostages (including 777 children), ending with the death of over 380 people. The crisis began when a group of armed separatist militants, mostly Ingush and Chechen, occupied School Number One (SNO) in the town of Beslan, North Ossetia on 1 September 2004.
Beslan school hostage crisisSchool massacresMassacres in Russia2004 in RussiaMilitary scandalsCrimes against childrenNorth Caucasus Insurgency OperationsRussian special forces operationsNorth Ossetia-AlaniaMass murder in 2004Terrorism in RussiaDisasters in schoolsFires in RussiaHostage takingTerrorist incidents in Russia in 2004Beslan school hostage crisisTerrorist incidents of the Second Chechen WarFolk saintsIslamist terrorism in Russia
List of Sailor Moon episodes
The 200 episodes of the Japanese anime series Sailor Moon were adapted from the eighteen volume manga series of the same name written and illustrated by Naoko Takeuchi. The episodes were directed by Junichi Sato, Kunihiko Ikuhara, Takuya Igarashi, Takao Yoshizawa and Hiromichi Matano, and produced by TV Asahi and Toei Animation. The first four seasons were dubbed and released in North America by DIC Entertainment and Cloverway.
List of Sailor Moon episodesLists of anime episodesSailor Moon episode lists
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug. It is one of the active ingredients in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines, such as Mucinex DM, Robitussin, NyQuil, Dimetapp, Vicks, Coricidin, Delsym, and others, including generic labels. Dextromethorphan has also found other uses in medicine, ranging from pain relief to psychological applications. It is sold in syrup, tablet, spray, and lozenge forms.
DextromethorphanEuphoriantsSigma agonistsSerotonin reuptake inhibitorsOpioidsMorphinansPhenol ethersNMDA receptor antagonistsDissociative drugsAntitussivesEnantiopure drugsNicotinic antagonists
Edutainment (also infotainment or entertainment-education) is a form of entertainment designed to educate as well as to amuse.
EdutainmentEntertainmentEducational materialsAnticipatory thinkingCommunication designEducational video gamesPedagogy
The term demigod (or demi-god), meaning half-god, is commonly used to describe mythological figures whose one parent was a god and whose other parent was human; as such, demigods are human-god hybrids. In some mythologies it also describes humans who became gods, or simply extremely powerful figures whose powers approach those of the gods even though they are not gods themselves.
DemigodDeities, spirits, and mythic beingsDeitiesGreek mythology
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a United States federal law that governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to children with disabilities. It addresses the educational needs of children with disabilities from birth to age 18 or 21 in cases that involve 14 specified categories of disability.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act108th United States CongressDiscrimination law in the United States2004 in lawUnited States federal education legislationDisability legislation2004 in educationSpecial education in the United States
Hyperion Books is a general-interest book publishing part of the Disney-ABC Television Group, a division of the Walt Disney Company, established in 1991. Hyperion publishes general-interest fiction and non-fiction books for adults under the following imprints: ABC Daytime Press, ESPN Books, Hyperion Audio, Hyperion eBooks, Hyperion East, Miramax Books, and Voice. The company is named after Hyperion Avenue, the location of Walt Disney Studios prior to 1939.
Hyperion BooksBook publishing companies based in New YorkWalt Disney Company subsidiariesPublishing companies established in 1991
Nepali people can refer to: People of Nepal Ethnic Nepalis of Indian citizenry residing in Gorkhaland area of West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and other parts of India. Indian Gorkhas Lhotshampas of Bhutan. Nepali diaspora the world over.
Nepali peopleEthnic groups in NepalEthnic groups in IndiaEthnic groups in Bhutan
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (12 January 1746 – 17 February 1827) was a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach. He founded several educational institutions both in German and French speaking regions of Switzerland and wrote novels explaining his revolutionary modern principles of education. His motto "Learning by head, hand and heart" is still a key principle in successful 21st century schools.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi1746 birthsSwiss ProtestantsIlluminati membersSwiss schoolteachersSwiss people of Italian descent1827 deathsAlternative educationSwiss educationistsPeople associated with the University of ZurichPeople from the canton of Zurich
Melanie Reizes Klein (30 March 1882 – 22 September 1960) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst who devised novel therapeutic techniques for children that had an impact on child psychology and contemporary psychoanalysis. She was a leading innovator in theorizing object relations theory.
Melanie KleinHistory of psychiatryAustrian psychologistsJews from Galicia (Eastern Europe)Hungarian psychologistsAustrian psychoanalystsBritish JewsBritish psychoanalystsJewish scientists1960 deathsAustrian expatriates in HungaryHungarian psychoanalystsAustrian JewsFreudiansBritish people of Hungarian descentHistory of mental health in the United Kingdom1882 birthsHungarian JewsPeople from ViennaBritish psychologists
Military brat (U.S. subculture)
A military brat (and various "brat" derivatives) describes people who spend their childhood or adolescence while a parent (or parents) serve full-time in the armed forces, and can also refer to the unique subculture and lifestyle of American military brats, the term refers to both current and former children of such families. Connotations: "Military brat", in U.S. military culture is known as a term of endearment and respect and may also imply a certain spunkiness or adaptability.
Military brat (U.S. subculture)Military lifeMilitary history of the United StatesMilitary slang and jargonSocial history of the United StatesReclaimed wordsAftermath of the Vietnam WarChildren in warItinerant livingCultural history of the United StatesMilitary bratsSubculturesMilitary sociologyVietnam WarAftermath of war
Department for Education
The Department for Education (DfE) is a department of the UK government responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including child protection and education. A Department for Education previously existed between 1992, when the Department of Education and Science was renamed, and 1995 when it was merged with the Department for Employment to become the Department for Education and Employment.
Department for Education2010 establishments in the United KingdomDepartment for Education
The Nephilim (plural) are the offspring of the "sons of God" and the "daughters of men" in Genesis 6:4, or giants who inhabit Canaan in Numbers 13:33. A similar word with different vowel-sounds is used in Ezekiel 32:27 to refer to dead Philistine warriors.
NephilimDemons in ChristianityMythological human hybridsBook of GenesisTorah peopleGiants
List of All My Children characters
This is a list of some of the major characters that appear (or have appeared) on the ABC Daytime soap opera All My Children. Contents: Top 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  A
List of All My Children charactersAll My Children characters
In television, the term watershed (alternatively referred to as safe harbor in the United States, and as adult time in Venezuela) denotes the time period in a television schedule during which programs with adult content can air.
Watershed (television)Television terminologyBroadcast law
Evacuations of civilians in Britain during World War II
The evacuation of civilians in Britain during the Second World War was designed to save the population of urban or military areas in the United Kingdom from aerial bombing of cities and military targets such as docks. Civilians, particularly children, were moved to areas thought to be less at risk. Operation Pied Piper, which began on 1 September 1939, officially relocated more than 3.5 million people.
Evacuations of civilians in Britain during World War IIEvacuationsPolitics of World War IIBattle of BritainUnited Kingdom home front during World War II